Deep Reinforcement Learning: Using policy-based methods to play Pong from pixels

34 mins read This is a long-overdue blog post on Reinforcement Learning (RL). RL is hot! You may have noticed that computers can […]

Evolution Strategies as a Scalable Alternative to Reinforcement Learning

16 mins read Evolution strategies (ES) is an optimization technique that’s been known for decades, rivals the performance of standard reinforcement learning (RL) techniques on […]

Best storage formats to save Pandas dataframes

6 mins read When working on data analytical projects, I usually use Jupyter notebooks and a great pandas library to process and move my data around. It […]

Double DQN and Dueling DQN in Reinforcement Learning

9 mins read In this article, we will see two algorithms that improve upon DQN. These are named Double DQN and Dueling DQN. But first, let’s […]

SumTree data structure for Prioritized Experience Replay (PER) explained with Python Code

14 mins read Weighted sampling from a list-like collection is an important activity in many applications. Weighted sampling involves selecting samples randomly from […]

Shannon entropy and its properties

25 mins read Suppose you are talking with three patients in the waiting room of a doctor’s office. All three of them have […]

Understanding Attention Mechanism in Sequence 2 Sequence Machine Translation

39 mins read Introduction Recurrent Neural Networks (or more precisely LSTM/GRU) have been found to be very effective in solving complex sequence-related problems […]

Principal Component Analysis (PCA) Explained

14 mins read What is PCA? Let’s say that you want to predict what the gross domestic product (GDP) of the United States will be […]

Understanding basic Trading Terminology

12 mins read This article is written for readers who want to understand the most common phrases and trading terminology that is used […]

What are eigenvectors and eigenvalues?

16 mins read Introduction Eigenvectors and eigenvalues have many important applications in computer vision and machine learning in general. Well-known examples are PCA (Principal […]

Automatic Differentiation Explained

8 mins read Introduction There are several methods to calculate gradients in computer programs: (1) Manual differentiation; (2) Symbolic differentiation; (3) Finite differences […]

How to use black, flake8, isort, and pre-commit framework to format Python codes

12 mins read black: The Uncompromising Code Formatter With black you can format Python code from 2.7 all the way to 3.8 (as of version […]

Understanding Model Calibration and Brier Score

12 mins read Do you ever encounter a storm when the probability of rain in your weather app is below 10%? Well, this […]

Make Python faster using Numba

15 mins read As you may know, python is an interpreted language. This means that python code is not directly compiled to machine […]

ANOVA (Analysis of variance) simply explained

27 mins read Introduction Buying a new product or testing a new technique but not sure how it stacks up against the alternatives? […]

Python Modules and Packages tutorial

45 mins read Modules If you quit the Python interpreter and enter it again, the definitions you have made (functions and variables) are […]

Exponential Distribution and its applications

10 mins read We always start with the “why” instead of going straight to the formulas. If you understand the why, it actually […]

The Poisson Distribution and its applications explained

26 mins read Before setting the parameter λ and plugging it into the formula, let’s pause a second and ask a question. Why […]

Fourier Transform basics and its applications

18 mins read The frequency domain Sound is a mechanical wave, a vibration in the air or another medium. Musical notes correspond to […]

Predicting Customer Churn with Machine Learning: From EDA to Classification

27 mins read Table of Contents Introduction Objective Libraries Parameters and Variables Functions A Quick Look at our Data Creating a Test Set […]